2015 January 16
For a long time, I’ve noticed that sometimes my shell scripts that use loops behave funny. Normally, when you hit control-C to cancel a script in the middle of a loop, the whole thing just exits. But in some cases I found that the control-C would cancel the current program, but not the whole script. This gets annoying if your loop is running time-consuming processing on hundreds of data sets — you have to sit there hitting control-C over and over again.
After a lot of detective work, I finally figured out what was going on. Here’s a clue. You can control-C this shell script and it will exit as expected:
for i in 1 2 3 4 5 ; do echo $i /usr/bin/sleep 10 done
But this one won’t:
for i in 1 2 3 4 5 ; do echo $i python -c "import time; time.sleep(10)" done
What the heck is Python up to? As you’d expect, I found a lot of misinformation online, but unexpectedly, I’ve barely been able to dig up any relevant and correct information. Fortunately, I finally found this article by Martin Cracauer, which set me straight.
Imagine that a shell script is running a long-running subprogram. When you hit control-C, both of the programs receive a SIGINT signal. In most cases the subprogram dies immediately. However, the shell’s behavior needs to be more complicated, because some subprograms handle the SIGINT and don’t die. The shell needs to wait and see what happens to the subprogram: it shouldn’t kill itself if the subprogram didn’t. The shell implements this logic by waiting for the subprogram to exit and using POSIX-defined macros like WIFSIGNALED to test how it died; specifically, if it got killed by a SIGINT or exited for some other reason.
If you’re familiar with Python, you might see the contours of the problem. Python catches SIGINT and turns it into a KeyboardInterrupt exception, which your code can then handle. However, it turns out that if you don’t handle it, Python exits through its normal means, effectively using sys.exit with an error code. In other words, from the shell’s perspective the subprogram doesn’t get killed by the SIGINT, and so then the shell decides that it shouldn’t give up either.
If you want to convince the shell that you did die from SIGINT, you can’t fake it with a special exit code or anything. You have to kill yourself with an honest-to-goodness SIGINT signal. Fortunately, it’s not hard to do that. I’d say this is a bug in Python: uncaught KeyboadInterrupts should lead to the process killing itself this way.
Once I figured out what was going on, it was easy to code up a fix that works by intercepting sys.excepthook. I’ve added it to my pwkit package, which includes several utilities useful for writing Python programs that operate on the command line, including a progam called wrapout that I’ve found to be very useful.
And yes, the fix totally works. I’m sure that other sets of software suffer from the same issue, and it’s unfortunate that you have to explicitly enable the fix in Python. (I checked and this is true for Python 3 as well as Python 2.) But if you were ever befuddled about what was going on, now you know!
(Oh, by the way: nothing about this is specific to loops at all. They just expose the problem in the most obvious way.)